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Desiring to speed up the start of the harvesting process, summer residents take up the arrangement greenhouses in their area. Greenhouse structures can be made from different materials, while having different sizes and shapes.
One of the most common options is a rebar greenhouse. This is a simple construction, which does not require large material investments. How to make a greenhouse from fittings with your own hands, we will consider below.
Types and design features
Reinforcing greenhouse structures can be divided into two types:
- steel reinforcement greenhouse;
- greenhouse made of plastic (composite reinforcement).
Both of these designs have almost the same pros and cons. The benefits include the following indicators:
- simple and quick installation of the frame;
- the ability, if necessary, to quickly disassemble the structure;
- acceptable cost of materials.
Disadvantages of designs:
- long fittings are inconvenient to store;
- plastic fittings are more suitable for the construction of small structures;
- metal reinforcement tends to rust, therefore it needs periodic priming.
An approximate sketch (drawing) of a greenhouse made of reinforcement:
To cover reinforcing cage use a film, polymer, cellular plastic. Relatively recently, cellular polycarbonate appeared on sale, which summer residents began to use as a glass substitute.
The advantages of polycarbonate:
- high ability to transmit sunlight;
- resistance to mechanical damage;
- the service life of a polycarbonate greenhouse is about 20 years;
- resistance to moisture and water.
- polycarbonate is combustible and melts when exposed to open fire;
- differs in high cost, unlike other materials.
The most common type of coating is film, which is notable for convenient installation and reasonable price.
There are several types of film used to build a greenhouse:
- Unstabilized film... Capable of transmitting up to 80% of sunlight. The disadvantage of this coating is a small margin of safety, as a result of which the film must be changed from season to season.
- Transparent hydrophilic membrane... Differs in increased strength, shock resistance and elasticity, as well as steam permeability. The main advantage of this material is that condensation drops do not fall from above, but flow down the coating, which favors plant growth. The material retains well the heat accumulated during the day.
- Heat-retaining polyethylene... Increases the temperature inside the structure by 1-3 degrees, while maintaining it. The service life of the material is about 9 months. The yield with such a coating is 20-30% more than when using other types of film. The disadvantage of heat-retaining polyethylene is its relatively low strength.
- Reinforced polyethylene... This material practically does not tear, which allows it to be used for two seasons. The downside is the low conductivity of light.
- PVC film - the most resistant to climate change and external damage. The service life is up to 6 years.
Note: since the greenhouse is made of steel reinforcement is a more stable and durable construction, below we will pay attention to this particular structure, equipped with a film coating.
A steel reinforcement greenhouse frame requires a foundation. Such the design is heavy, therefore, the reinforcement not fixed in concrete will gradually "sink into the soil".
For foundation reinforcement use rods with a diameter of 12 mm, the frame itself can be built from thinner reinforcement - with a section of 8 mm.
Greenhouses equipped with a strip foundation, the depth of which is up to 100 cm, retain about 10% of heat.
For a heavy reinforcement cage, it is necessary to erect a strip foundation. Optimal construction dimensions:
- depth 0.5-0.8 m;
- width - at least 20 cm.
In the northern regions, the foundation is laid to the depth of soil freezing. Moreover, he needs insulation by means of pieces of polystyrene laid in the trench.
An approximate version of the foundation:
The process of building a foundation for a greenhouse from fittings with your own hands:
- A trench is being dug required depth and width. When marking the perimeter, you should align it diagonally, and then set the stakes in the corners.
- Formwork is being built, the height of which should be from 10 to 15 cm. For its manufacture, you can use boards with a thickness of 25 mm, chipboard, plywood. From above, the formwork must be leveled using a level.
- Reinforcement mesh is being prepared from reinforcement.
- Reinforcing mesh is laid.
- Pre-prepared frame sections are installed in the trench.
- Concrete is poured in several layers (the thickness of each layer is 15-20 cm). Each layer must be tamped down to avoid voids. Stones should not be placed in the trench or crushed brick - this will negatively affect the strength of the foundation.
Additionally, you can find out on our website how to build a greenhouse with your own hands: a foundation, a frame made of available materials, a profile pipe, how to cover a greenhouse, how to choose polycarbonate, what color, how to make vents, underfloor heating, an infrared heater, internal arrangement, and also about repair , winter care, preparation for the season and how to choose a ready-made greenhouse.
For a strong and durable construction it is better to weld the reinforcement rods with each otherbut it is also possible to use a knitting wire. So that the assembly does not cause unnecessary difficulties, the frame is erected outside the trench.
He is structure in the form of arches made of reinforcementinstalled at a certain distance from each other and fastened to each other by horizontal rods.
The number of rods is determined by the depth of the foundation, since the structure below needs high-quality reinforcement.
The first step is to make arches from reinforcing rods, taking into account the height of the future structure and the depth of the foundation. Then the finished parts are installed in the trench and welded to each other by means of horizontal beams. The distance between the arches is 0.4-0.5 m.
Possible frame option:
Note: it is necessary that the arches are located in the middle of the width of the foundation strip.
Fastening the film to the metal frame
For fastening films to the steel frame mainly use two ways.
- Clip method... Many commercially available greenhouse options are equipped with special clamps. When building a greenhouse on your own, you can make these parts with your own hands. The clamps are made of bent sheet steel.
When fixing the mounts it is necessary to use rubber padsthanks to which the film will last longer. The spacers will keep the coating from coming into contact with the metal clips.
- For fixing film coating coarse mesh can also be used, which is stretched outside and inside the greenhouse structure. This way the material will be tightly anchored between the two mesh layers.
Finished clamps as sample:
Film-coated steel reinforcement structures - oone of the most reliable and effective methods greenhouse structures. In addition, the strength and durability of the iron frame will not make you regret the choice made by the lovers of agriculture.
Useful information in the video below: