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Jerusalem artichoke (earthen pear) is a useful, high-yielding, unpretentious plant, the tubers of which can be used for food, and the green mass for pet food.
To get a good harvest of Jerusalem artichoke, you need to remember that this plant can be grown in one place for many years, which will not affect the yield and quality of the soil, but a well-lit and far from other plants area should be allocated for planting, since this giant is able to displace others. culture; it has a high frost resistance, is not picky about the soil (any soil is suitable, except for sour soils), it tolerates drought well, but rots with excessive moisture.
How to grow an earthen pear from tubers and seeds and where to get them, as well as what is needed to grow it at home and how to properly breed a plant on a plot in the country in order to get a good harvest. We will tell you this and much more in our article.
How to choose the right variety?
To choose the right variety of Jerusalem artichoke, you need to see the purpose of growing this plant:
- as a healing agent;
- breed as an element of landscape design;
- for human use for food or livestock feed.
Almost all varieties of Jerusalem artichoke in modern breeding are aimed at obtaining both an abundant aerial part of the plant and a large number of tubers from the bush. Food varieties have been bred, a distinctive feature of which is increased tuberization and a small green mass.
The varieties used for medicinal purposes and for livestock feed are characterized by a large volume of green mass and a low yield of tubers.
Each variety has its own characteristics, which can be found in the table.
|Variety name||Tuber yield per square meter||Productivity of green mass from one bush||Ripening period, growing season|
|Interest (suitable for mechanized harvesting)||2.6-3.8 kg||4.3-5.6 kg||Late ripening, in the Middle Lane does not have time to ripen|
|Omsk white||4.3 kg||3 - 3.5 kg||Mid-season (130 days)|
|Pasko||3 Kg||3.4 kg||Late ripening (178-190 days)|
|Skorospelka (suitable for mechanized harvesting)||2.5 - 3 kg||3-3.5 kg||Early ripening (120 days), suitable for cultivation in the Middle Lane|
|Solar||4 Kg||3.1 kg||Mid-season (152-172 days)|
|Volzhsky 2 (suitable for mechanized harvesting)||1.5 kg||2 Kg||Early ripening (100 days)|
|Vylgotsky||1-1.7 kg||3.4-4.1 kg||Early ripening (125 days)|
|Leningradsky||4.5 -4.9 kg||4-4.2 kg||Mid-season (140 days)|
A comparative analysis of the varieties showed that at present one of the best varieties are Omskiy Bely and Leningradskiy, as they are suitable for widespread cultivation and give a high yield of both tubers and green mass.
A detailed description of the various varieties of Jerusalem artichoke can be found in this material.
The photo shows what Jerusalem artichoke looks like.
Where and for how much can you buy seed?
In each region there are companies, private entrepreneurs, Jerusalem artichoke lovers who are engaged in plant breeding and offer planting material for sale. Sales offers are easy to find on the Internet.
For example, the Ryazanskie Prostory company from the town of Sapozhok, Ryazan Region, sells Jerusalem artichoke in a package of 30 kg, the price ranges from 5 to 15 rubles per kilogram. In Moscow, Jerusalem artichoke planting material can be purchased at a price of 27 to 35 rubles per kilogram (AV Gorobets, IP, Starominskaya. Veselaya Rat, IP, Moscow). In St. Petersburg - the cost of an earthen pear is from 25 to 150 rubles per 1 kilogram (the order is accepted from 10 kg), the plant is sold by the Health of the Nation company.
Growing an earthen pear in the open field on the site
Jerusalem artichoke can be planted outdoors and at home in containers. Mostly, the plant is planted in open ground because of the powerful bush. How to reproduce? An earthen pear can be propagated in two ways.:
- vegetative (tubers, parts thereof or eyes);
- generative (by seeds, a long, painstaking way, requiring special knowledge).
The plant can be planted in autumn (preferably in the southern regions of the country) 10-15 days before the onset of frost and in spring, when the soil warms up to 16-18 degrees.
We talked about the best time of the year to plant Jerusalem artichoke here, and from this article you will learn how to plant in spring.
How to grow an earthen pear with tubers in the open field?
- Choose a well-lit, dry area to prevent rotting of the tubers.
- Prepare the bed by digging it onto the bayonet of a shovel and adding compost or rotted manure.
- Apply phosphate fertilizer before planting.
- Select large, healthy tubers (6-8 cm), free from rot and damage, with few buds.
- Spray the planting material with any immunocytophyte solution that protects against diseases and accelerates growth.
- Make grooves on the ridge and plant tubers in them at a distance of at least 40 cm from each other, immersing them in the soil 7-15 cm, depending on the size of the tuber. Grown with a row spacing of 60-70 cm.
- After the sprouts appear, weed the bed and loosen it well. Do this procedure three times with an interval of 2 weeks.
- Thin the plants when their height reaches 10 cm: the minimum distance between plants is 45 cm, between rows - 30 cm.
- Spud the shoots when they reach 20 cm in height, and feed with urea. (In the middle of summer, you can re-hilling and mulching with humus or last year's manure).
- Tie plants that have reached a meter in height to strong supports.
- To increase yields, cut off flowering buds or trim bushes up to 1.5 meters tall.
Growing as a business
At present, Jerusalem artichoke remains in the shadow of other agricultural crops, although its biochemical data and yield are much higher than that of conventional plants. The profitability of growing an earthen pear exceeds 300% with minimal costs... For example, economists have established that the development of a new Jerusalem artichoke plantation with an area of 50 hectares will require 812 million rubles. This is the approximate cost of growing. This amount includes the cost of purchasing agricultural machinery, the purchase of seed material, organic and mineral fertilizers, the cost of fuels and lubricants and electricity.
Of course, the proceeds from the sale of green mass and fresh Jerusalem artichoke tubers directly depend on the yield and the selling price of a unit of production. But even with a minimum yield of green mass and tubers (within 20 t / ha), the return on capital investments will come in the first year of Jerusalem artichoke cultivation. A plant can produce green mass up to 1000 c / ha, tubers - 400 c / ha!
The cultivation and reproduction of Jerusalem artichoke on an industrial scale is very profitable. The agricultural technology of its cultivation is similar to the technology of growing potatoes:
- Deep autumn plowing of the field under Jerusalem artichoke is required.
- It is necessary to apply organic fertilizers, which are embedded in the soil in autumn or spring, depending on the time of planting the tubers.
- It is advisable to grow an earthen pear on the ridges, so that under unfavorable climatic conditions the tuberous nest does not block and does not impair the development of the plant.
- Jerusalem artichoke is propagated in industrial sizes only by tubers. The planting rate per hectare depends on the planting scheme and the size of the planting tubers. On average, 1-1.2 tons of tubers are planted per hectare. If you need to get a large tuberous crop, then planting should be less frequent (90x25 cm), if you need more green mass, then make a compacted planting in rows and reduce the row spacing to 70 or 60 cm.
- In order to prevent the development of weeds, it is recommended to carry out one or two harrowing before emergence.
- After sprouting, it is recommended to cultivate row spacings and harrow. Further care of the plantations of the first year of planting consists in loosening the row spacings and killing weeds in the rows.
To grow earthen pears on an industrial scale, you need a tractorto cultivate the land, and a potato digger for harvesting. The number of jobs will depend on the number of units of equipment, and one worker can be involved in several processes carried out at different periods of plant development.
Labor costs for the production of Jerusalem artichoke are practically zero, since, according to the remarkable agronomist V.I. Kozlovsky, "this is the only plant that is cultivated, which gives crops almost without labor costs, without fear of frost, drought, rain, or bad soil and without punishing the negligence of summer work."
To register a legal entity to create your own business, you need:
- come up with a corporate name of the company that does not contradict the law;
- decide on a legal address;
- select OKVED codes;
- determine the amount of the authorized capital;
- draw up the decision of the founder or the minutes of the general meeting and the agreement on the establishment of an LLC;
- prepare the charter of the organization;
- write an application for state registration;
- pay the state fee (4000 rubles);
- submit all documents to your IFTS.
We offer you to watch a video where ideas for a business when growing Jerusalem artichoke are presented:
Errors and ways to solve them
|Errors||Ways to overcome mistakes|
|Thickened planting, which leads to a decrease in the yield of tubers||Thinning plantings that have reached a height of 10 cm.|
|A dense, airtight crust has formed on the soil surface||Gentle loosening in accordance with the ridges in which the planting is located.|
|Planting is not watered||Jerusalem artichoke bushes need abundant watering at least 1 time per month.|
|Plants are not fed||Topinambur should be fed 2-3 times. In early spring and in the second half of summer:|
|In autumn, the aboveground part of the plant is cut||In autumn, the aerial part is not cut off until the harvest itself, as it contributes to the accumulation of nutrients in the tubers, which are left in the ground for the next year.|
Harvesting of earthen pears is carried out, depending on the variety, from September to November. Before harvesting itself, you need to cut the tops at a height of 15-17 cm. When digging out the fruits, the largest tubers are selected, then they need to be washed, dried, laid in layers, sprinkled with wet sand or sawdust, and kept in a cool basement, observing the storage conditions: 85-95% humidity and temperature +4 degrees.
Jerusalem artichoke tubers can be stored on a warmed balcony, in the refrigerator, but the shelf life is short - 2-3 weeks. The sliced fruits can be kept dried for about a year.
We talked about when to dig up Jerusalem artichoke, but about how to do it and how to store the vegetable later, you will learn from this article.
Diseases and pests
This plant is not very susceptible to diseases and pests. But in dry or cool and rainy summers, it can get sick:
- white rot (felt plaque on the stems, turning into black growths);
- alternaria (leaves are covered with dark brown spots, and then the plant dries up);
- powdery mildew (the leaves are gradually covered with a brownish loose white bloom).
There are two ways to fight these diseases: by cutting and burning plants, or once or twice treating plants with fungicides in warm weather.
An earthen pear can be damaged by:
- May beetles and their larvae.
To combat them, you can use a concentrated soap solution, garlic infusion. Slugs need to be collected by hand or spread between the rows of the trap.
The amazing Jerusalem artichoke plant is gradually conquering the fields of our country, and its unpretentiousness, resistance to diseases and high productivity will provide the plant with high demand in the near future.