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Tomatoes are a vegetable crop that requires good care and close attention. A rare gardener does not grow tomatoes in his garden. But to get a really good tomato harvest is possible only by planting properly grown seedlings.
There are quite a few difficulties in planting seedlings. You need to choose the right planting time, provide the tomatoes with sunlight, properly prepare the seeds, observe the frequency of watering.
Tomatoes are quite often susceptible to all kinds of diseases. Therefore, it is impossible to start seedlings, you need to carefully examine the bushes for spots, pests or other signs of the disease. What if the seedlings are frozen or frozen and not growing? All answers are in the article.
Problems and advice on what to do with them
Tomatoes are a whimsical vegetable that can be grown with a number of problems. Let's consider some of them.
Young tomatoes are frozen
Most often, frosts that returned in late spring are to blame for freezing.... Also, the cause of freezing can be the lack of hardening of seedlings, poorly prepared beds or early planting in the ground. It is quite possible to save frozen seedlings.
- With light frosts, the seedlings need to be warmed up.
- To do this, at least five liters of natural water (from a river, rainwater, from a well or well) must be poured onto each bush.
- After watering, you need to cover the tomatoes with foil in two layers.
- If the forecast predicts an increase in frost, then it is necessary to additionally (on top of the film) protect the seedlings with blankets or rags.
- If the seedlings are badly damaged, the leaves change color, darken, dry out or fall off, you need to act immediately.
- Immunomodulators will be an emergency help. They must be diluted and used strictly according to the recipe indicated on the package.
- Pruning of all affected parts of the bush will help the seedlings. It is necessary to cut off all the leaves and stems with a sharp knife. If you had to cut to the ground, that's okay. Tomatoes will recover from buds dormant at the base of a leaf or root. After pruning, the seedlings should be spilled with fertilizers. You can use urea, potassium humate with poultry droppings.
This is how young tomatoes affected by frost look:
Slowly growing at home
- Slow growth of seedlings is associated with poor quality soil or poor quality care. Poor quality soil is easy to figure out. Seedlings do not grow well, the lower leaves become purple or blue. In this case, the tomatoes lack magnesium. You shouldn't change the land right away. Better to use top dressing.
- Slow growth is also possible if the seedlings lack nitrogen. Oxygen does not reach the roots, which makes tomatoes unable to breathe. Indicate a lack of nitrogen and thin, almost transparent leaves and thin stems. Urea will help restore growth and replenish the lack of nitrogen.
- Poor care affects the seedlings no less than the composition of the soil. Excessive watering, or vice versa, too little water affects the growth of seedlings. The lack of sunlight slows down the growth of the plant.
The reasons may be improper care or illness. Improper care includes:
- excessive watering or lack of moisture;
- too dry air;
- seedlings are cold;
- there is no fresh air.
If one of the points is found, the situation should be urgently corrected. Poor quality soil can also cause seedlings to fall. Check for pests.
For your information. A common disease due to contaminated soil is fusarium.
Abundant watering and lack of freedom can lead to diseases such as "black leg" (the seedling will quickly begin to darken and wither along the entire trunk, starting from the bottom). If the problem is noticed immediately, it is enough to simply transplant the plant into a new soil. If the case is neglected, it is additionally necessary to apply fertilizers and top dressing for treatment.
What is missing if the plant is light green?
Seedling leaves become light for several reasons. This can be an abundance of moisture, lack of oxygen or heat. It can also be caused by a lack of potassium in the soil. In this case, you can feed the plants with potassium humate or other suitable fertilizer.
Weak seedlings can be caused by lack of sunlight.... If the weather is cloudy, it is recommended to artificially illuminate the room. It is also necessary to use complex mineral fertilizers to nourish the plant.
The disease is classified as fungal. It is manifested by drying and darkening of the tomato stem. Then the plant tilts and falls as a result.
Important... The cause of the disease is the lack of distance between seedlings, as well as abundant watering.
What to do to prevent a black leg from developing in a tomato? Prevention of the disease should be carried out:
- To do this, you need to add ash or sand to the soil.
- If the plant is already sick, then the measures to combat the black leg should be with the help of fungicides: Fitosporin-M, Baktofit, Fitolavin.
- Conduct disinfection of the earth by watering a solution of potassium permanganate. You can use copper sulfate.
- Seedlings that have been sick for a long time must be destroyed.
reference... This is a fungal disease, manifested by the appearance of grayish spots on the lower leaves of the plant. Leaves turn brown and dry over time.
Seedlings are infected with a disease through the soil... The fungus enters the plant through the roots.
For prevention, it is necessary to disinfect the soil with a solution of potassium permanganate. Fertilize the soil with ash and sand. You can freeze the soil before planting seeds or planting seedlings. Plants that have been sick for a long time must be destroyed. For the treatment of the rest of the seedlings, treatment with Bordeaux liquid is used.
A sign of brown spotting is light brown spots on the leaves that darken over time... The cause of the occurrence may be increased soil and air humidity.
For the prevention of the disease, it is necessary to shed the soil with a solution of potassium permanganate. Sprouts that have undergone the disease for a relatively long time must be removed. The rest of the seedlings can be treated with Bordeaux liquid.
Serious viral illness... Resistant to frost and drought, the likelihood of infection is quite high. Seedlings can become infected from the soil, from weeds and even from equipment that is used for care. The aphid is also the carrier of the mosaic.
The disease manifests itself on the leaves. They are covered with mosaic spots, green or dark. Specific growths appear and the sheet begins to curl.
For prophylaxis, the plant must be treated with a 20% hydrochloric acid solution.... Treat sprouts with boric acid 0.1%. For treatment, chemicals such as Pharmayod-3 are used.
The disease is viral, it is carried mainly by insects. With a disease, the color of the tomatoes lightens, the tops of the plant begin to curl, the leaves curl and deform.
For prevention, you need to treat the plant with agents against aphids and other pests. For treatment, use chemicals. If the seedlings are already drying up, they need to be destroyed..
Leaves turn yellow
The yellowness of the upper leaves indicates that the plant lacks calcium. It needs to be fed. The causes of yellowness may be too small a distance between the bushes, poor lighting, copper deficiency. If the entire bush turns light yellow, then the seedlings do not have enough manganese. Mechanical damage to the roots during picking is one of the many factors in the yellowing of leaves.
Growing errors and their prevention
- Buying seeds in unfamiliar places... At the market or from your grandmother on the road, you can buy seeds of poor quality. With such a purchase, you need to soak the seeds in a solution of potassium permanganate and leave for 20 minutes. Then rinse with water. If the seeds darken, then everything is in order.
- Long soaking... You do not need to soak the seeds for more than 15 hours. Otherwise, they will simply suffocate.
- Wrong boarding time... Planting too early or too late will affect the quality of the tomato. Ideal seedlings for planting in the ground - from forty to sixty days. Seeds should not be planted if no warmth is expected after two months.
- Planting in garden soil... The mixture should be harvested in the fall. It can be composed of sand and humus, compost or soil from the forest - in equal proportions. In addition, 0.5 liters of wood ash should go to a bucket of mixture.
- Lowering the temperature... After planting the seeds, you need to maintain a temperature of + 25 ° C. Only in this case will seedlings appear quickly.
- Lack of sun... As soon as the seedlings have appeared, it is necessary to place the pots in a place where the inflow of sunlight is maximized.
- Excessive watering... Watering is necessary when the topsoil dries up. Every time after watering, it is necessary to loosen the soil.
- Tightness... Tomatoes love freedom. Do not plant them too close to each other. Plant leaves should not be in contact.
- Lack of hardening... Two weeks before planting seedlings in open ground, it is necessary to take them out to the street or balcony every day. Increase the time gradually up to a whole day. Leave outside for the night the day before disembarkation.
We suggest watching a video that details the main mistakes in growing tomato seedlings:
Growing seedlings of juicy and mouth-watering tomatoes on your own is not so difficult. The main thing is to properly care for and not make mistakes when planting and leaving. And then a huge and high-quality harvest will delight its owners.