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The mole is an underground mammal. Occurs in soils with moderate moisture.
Prefers a well-warmed area.
Due to its excellent sense of smell and vibrissae, the mole finds worms and insects on the site.
Feeds on food of animal origin.
The mole is an animal mammal of the order of insectivores. The habitat of the common mole has very widespread... It can be found in almost all regions of the Russian Federation, Ukraine and Belarus.
It lives in dry meadows, forest more often with deciduous shrubs and birch forests.
Most often found at the edge of the forest, railroad slopes, thawed patches, clearings, forest clearings and roads that well lit by the sun.
He can inflict irreparable harm garden in the country, garden, hotbeds, parks, arable land with cereals. The mole does not like continuous forest plantations of conifers, hills with sandy soil, swampy areas, floodplain meadows.
Dislikes soil on which bushes have grown or trees with a powerful root system... He prefers humus chernozem with moderate humidity.
In such soil, you can find insects, larvae and worms. The chosen location depends on the temperature factor.
The stronger the temperature drops - the closer the animal gets to the forest.
Moving upward from the lowlands, moles find the most favorable habitats heated by the sun.
Important! If the soil freezes and becomes crusty during the winter, the animal may be trapped. Moles often die in winter due to harsh weather and lack of food, as they are found only in the upper layers of the soil. At this time, earthworms and insects descend into the deepest horizons of the soil.
This mammal is a loner. When meeting with another male, a fight occurs, which lasts until the death of one of the moles... After that, it ends with cannibalism.
The whole life span the mole leads the underground Lifestyle. The diameter of the burrows is 4-6 cm. Residential passages lead from the main nest to the watering hole.
The nest is covered with forest moss or dense grass. The total length of the holes is 1.0-1.5 km.
If you do not know what a mole looks like, then a photo of the animal will clearly show you it:
Description of the animal
To move through the dug tunnels helps him cylindrical, shortened, dense body... It has a slight sharpening in front, and rounding in the back.
The front is much better developed. The animal has 6 main types and 11 different varieties. They differ in the structure of the jaw, skeleton, their weight, size.
Young individuals differ from old mammals in a silvery tint of their skin. The mole has practically no neck. The head appears to be pulled into the shoulders.
The body is smoothly in contact with triangular head... The proboscis is located on the head, along the edges of which there are vibrissae. Thanks to these sensitive hairs, the animal finds food.
The forelimbs of the mole are wide, twisted, shovel-shaped... The feet are initially silvery black. Over time, they start to fade.
There are 5 tightly pressed toes on the feet. They are connected by thin membranes. Claws are elongated, strong, slightly flattened. In length they reach 10 mm.
Hind feet without webbing, but with very sharp, elongated nails. The animal has 44 teeth, 2 of which are well-developed upper canines. In adult moles, the canines are severely worn.
The size of a male mole from the proboscis to the tail can reach 115-200 mm, females - from 105 to 145 mm. The weight of males is 90-100 grams, of females - 60-80 grams.
The eyes are small, very poorly developed and almost completely covered by the skin. At the mole there are no auricles.
Also, the auditory openings are closed by the skin. But the animal's hearing is remarkably developed.
What sense organs are better developed in a mole? Available to him frequency sound conductivity of soil... The sense of smell is well developed. By smell, he finds food in the ground.
Tactile hairs are distributed throughout the body. Thanks to them, he feels the worms located 50-70 cm from him.
Also an integral part is a 2-centimeter tail, which is covered with hairs. When the mole lifts its tail up, he feels the ceiling of the dug tunnel... If he does not feel the ground, then he goes back to his hole.
Mammal feeds only animal food... The main food is earthworms and small insects, vertebrates.
Reference: In the wild, moles can feed on mice, rats, frogs, ants.
The metabolism of this mammal is very fast. Therefore, the mole have to absorb a lot of food... During the day, the animal eats food equal to its own weight. For life, males need 145 grams of food, females - 80 grams.
If the animal is hungry, it can eat on the surface of the soil. But in most cases, moles carry their prey into dug holes... The animal's stomach holds 20 grams of food.
In 30 minutes, a mammal can eat 35-45 grams of earthworms. After 5-6 hours, the mole eats the same amount of food. After that for 3-4 hours he goes into hibernation, after which the search for food begins anew.
Important! Vegetable foods are not food for moles. If plant particles get inside, then they end up there randomly or from the digestive tract of earthworms.
Several factors affect how many years a mole lives:
- Diseases and attacks of pests, insects;
- Living conditions, temperature drops, soil freezing;
- Meeting with enemies - fox, marten, owl;
- Cannibalism between one subspecies;
- Food, hunger strike, lack of food.
How long does the common mole live under favorable conditions? The average life span of an animal is 4-7 years.
The mole is an insectivorous animal. The life of a mole takes place in burrows at the edges of the forest, in garden plots, glades and roads. In weight it reaches 100 grams.
Eats food equal to its own weight per day. It hides its nests from people, predators and other males. Can live 7 years under good conditions.
In the video you can see an ordinary mole on the site: